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Let’s Dig into Legal Data Analytics a Little Further, Shall We?


Flowchart of performance indicators from Legal Operations KPIs Handbook, 2023. It shows 'Teams Achievement' linked to past-focused 'KRI', 'Progress Overview' linked to present-focused 'RI', and 'Non Crucial' and 'Crucial Teams Scorecards' linked to future-focused 'PI' and 'KPI', respectively. Percentages indicate the emphasis on past, present, and future results.

November 28, 2023


Since the dawn of written language, humans have used the power of data to shape decisions. We began with the simple tallies of agriculture and census, and now, our capabilities have grown exponentially. Today, we navigate a complex labyrinth of data analysis methods—Metrics, Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), Key Risk Indicators (KRIs), and Analytics which are greatly discussed in our previous article.


With the surge of technological advancements, legal operations have diversified their data strategies to emerge as leaders. Yet, even as KPIs become a staple, their application can stir up confusion. There’s a delicate dance between the metrics that drive a GC or CEO's decision-making and those like KRIs that offer a rearview mirror glimpse into past performances, such as last year’s legal spend.


With the abundance of data available, it's important to follow the best practices for Metrics and Reporting. Information from other business units like HR and Marketing is recreated to suit the unique needs of legal operations. They serve as a bridge, connecting the raw data with actionable insights for legal professionals.


Decoding the Data Matrix


Data has ascended to becoming an important part of a business. It has become the bedrock upon which strategic insights are built, turning into a clear set of measurements and signs that guide leaders to their business goals. Envision an onion, its layers peeling away to reveal the core: a journey from the raw data to insightful conclusions.


The hierarchy of data analysis. Outermost is 'Data', providing raw material for analysis, followed by 'Reports', organizing information into a comprehensible format. 'Metrics' are depicted as basic units of measurement for operations, and at the core are 'Indicators' (KPI, KRI, PI, RI), which are specific metrics used to guide decisions and assess performance.

Within this framework, each ring of the Onion distills the previous one, honing broad datasets into precise instruments of business intelligence. It is here, in the legal field's embrace of data analytics, that we witness a silent revolution—a meticulous orchestration where every number, every trend, translates into a step toward improved operations.


As technology continues to advance at a fast pace, it brings with it several terms that are important for imparting clarity to complex aspects of legal data analytics.


  • Data: are the raw material in a legal department, consisting of unprocessed facts and figures, forming the basis for analysis and decision-making. Examples include litigation documents, case entries, and email correspondence, which collectively depict the department's operational reality.

  • Indicators: are metrics refined to monitor and evaluate aspects of a legal department’s performance. The 'Client Satisfaction Index', for example, measures the quality of client relations and services.

  • Key Performance Indicators (KPIs): are action drivers, specifically tracking the efficiency and effectiveness of strategies within a legal department. 'Time to Draft Contract' is a KPI that gauges the speed of contract drafting processes.

  • Key Result Indicators (KRIs): are summaries of outcomes, KRIs provide a high-level view of the department's results. A common KRI is 'Legal Spend as a Percentage of Total Revenue', offering insight into financial management.

  • Metrics: are quantifiable measures derived from raw data. For instance, the number of contracts reviewed is a metric that aids in assessing the department's contract management workload.

  • Performance Indicators (PIs): are metrics tied to specific teams or functions. 'Number of Training Sessions Attended by Staff', for instance, indicates the department's investment in skill development.

  • Reports: synthesize various metrics and indicators to present a comprehensive view of the legal department’s activities and outcomes. An 'Annual Legal Department Performance Report' might include a blend of KPIs, KRIs, and other metrics, often enhanced with visual aids for better understanding.

  • Result Indicators (RIs): reflect the outcomes of combined team efforts. An example is the 'Average Time Taken by Paralegals to Review Documents', which measures team efficiency.


In the following diagram, the distinction between Result and Performance indicators is illustrated. As a rule of thumb, from all your Indicators, typically only 10% might be KRIs, 80% RIs & PIs, and 10% KPIs.


The diagram below outlines the differences between Result and Performance indicators. When categorizing your indicators, a common distribution might include 10% as KRIs, a substantial 80% as RIs and Performance Indicators PIs, and the remaining 10% as KPIs.



Infographic from Legal Operations KPIs Handbook, 2023, contrasting Results and Performance indicators. On the left, 'Results' indicators include many teams, combined work, and past, non-specific events reported to the board, while on the right, 'Performance' focuses on one team, specific present events, and short time blocks reported to C-Level. Below, a flow diagram connects these indicators to past and future-focused KPIs, with percentages indicating their relative emphasis in evaluations.

Redefining Legal Operations with Data Analytics

The journey from basic data collection to the sophisticated analytics that shape today’s legal operations reflects a deeper understanding of data's role in strategic decision-making, beyond mere numbers to actionable insights that drive efficiency and effectiveness within legal departments. Technology will keep on evolving and the legal industry’s approach to data analytics becomes more critical, blending traditional metrics with innovative indicators to navigate the complexities of modern business. The real power lies in the application of these insights, transforming raw data into a strategic asset that informs every decision, shapes future strategies, and ultimately, defines the success of legal operations. As we embrace this data-driven future, the emphasis on clarity, precision, and strategic alignment in legal analytics will continue to be the topmost priority, ensuring that legal departments remain agile, informed, and ahead of the curve.


There is a lot to be said about the impact of data analytics on legal operations. For those interested in exploring these topics further, Legal Operations KPI offers a deep dive into the subject, providing invaluable insights and strategies. Whether your goal is to impress C-suite executives, lead your team to success, or build impactful professional relationships, this book stands as an essential guide for every legal professional.


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